Continental Drift

Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other and it's like sea-floor spreading.


Pangaea is when the continents drifts together to form the super continent called Pangaea.

It’s surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa.

It began to break apart about 200 million years ago, during the early Jurassic Period.

The breakup of Pangaea is now explained in the term of plate tectonics rather than Wagener’s outmoded concept of continental drift.



An earthquake is when the plates go together, with a huge pressure and then the plates with the most pressure go under each other and it breaks with a huge wave or fault. Earthquakes are measured by a seismometer. Seismometer measures the pattern of an earthquake.  Some time earthquake cause tsunami. A tsunami is when the earthquake goes in the water with a huge pressure and a big wave is created. Earthquake is very danger. They could fallen builders down and object. The good way to protect yourself is drop, cover, and hold. When you’re inside just go beneath a table or desk and hold on to it. If you are outside move an open area such as a playground. Sit down to avoid being thrown down.


A fault is when the energy in the rock breaks. Remember fault is a crack in the rock’s crust where rock cover slip past each other. The rock on both side of the faults move up or down and side ways. Most fault happen on place boundaries where pressure of the plate’s motion push or pull the crust so much that the crust breaks. The three kinds of fault are normal, reverse faults and strike-slip faults. 


                                           Normal Fault

Normal fault is Earth’s crust pulls rocks apart causing normal fault. The fault is an angle so one block of rock lies above the fault, the place that lie above is called the hanging wall. The one that’s below is called footwall.

       Reverse Fualt

Reverse fault is when the crusts are pushed together and cause reverse faults to form, it have the same picture of normal faults, but it goes opposite directions.

Stricke-slip faults

It’s when plates past each other and creating a strike-slip faults. In this the rock none of the sidesof the faults, pass each other sideway. It goes up and down a little.


                                                Hot Spot

A hot spot is an area where material from deep in the mantle rises and melt, forming magma.

Some volcanoes, hot spot lies in the middle of the plates far from any plate boundaries.

Hot spot in the ocean floor can form series volcanic mountains. Hot spot can form under continents.


                                                Mid-Ocean Ridge

Mid-ocean ridge is a general term for an underwater mountain system.

Scientists mapped the mid-ocean ridges using sonar (a device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects and then records the echoes of these sound waves).


                                                Volcanic Eruption

Is when the magma rises towards the surface with huge pressure if the surface rock on the magma goes lower? The gases begin to expand forming bubbles. When the hest falls within the magma, the size of the gas babbles increases hugs. These expanding gases push heat from the magma. When magma move from the volcanic happen around plate bandanas volcanoes have hut spot, a hot spot is the earth’s mantle where material from deep within the mantle rises and melt.


                                                The Ring Of Fire

The ring of fire is where large number of earthquake and volcanic happen beside the Pacific Ocean about 90% of the earthquake and 8%of the world largest earthquake happen along the ring of fire.


                                            Sea-Floor Spreading

The sea-floor spreading is an effect of the plate tectonics that spread apart along both Mid –Ocean Ridge.


Deep-Ocean Trenches

A deep-ocean trenches is an ocean floor plunges into deep underwater canyons. At this deep-ocean trench the crust bends downward. The deep-ocean takes about ten of the millions years, the part that the ocean floor sinks back to the mantle of the deep- ocean trenches.



Continental Drift made a super continent called Pangaea and the Pangaea was separated by the continental drift to the present day.



            Subduction is when ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle. The process of Subduction is when one plate is pushed downwards beneath another plate, the mid-ocean ridge moves away from the ridge and toward a deep ocean trench. Seafloor spreading and Subduction both work together, they both move the ocean floor for Example: there was a giant conveyor belt they both move it at the same direction. When ocean crust moves away from the mid-ocean ridge, it cools and becomes more pressure, the gravity pulls it older. The process of Subduction and sea-floor spreading can change the size and shape of the ocean, because of these processes. The ocean floor is renewed about ever 20 million years. The mid-ocean ridge moves across the ocean, and sinks into a trench, sometimes a deep ocean trench swallows more oceanic crust than a mid-ocean ridge can produce.